Key: Consonants

Our transcription is designed for the ease of Turkish readers. In the pop-up notes international standard transliteration is used to show the Arabic, Farsi, and Old Turkish etymologes of the Ottoman Turkish words.

Arabic / Osm. Letter Our Turkish Transcription International Transliteration Examples... Notes
elif - ﺍ Transcribed as any vowel, commonly a or i in initial position, or long â in medial or final position
be - ﺐ b - sometimes p b Written b except in the Turkish ending -ip/-ıp
pe – پ p p
te - ﺖ t t
se - ﺙ s - rarely t
cim - ﺝ c - sometimes ç c
çim - ﭺ ç ç
ha - ﺡ h
hı - ﺥ h or kh
dal - ﺪ d d
zel - ﺬ z
re - ﺭ r r
ze - ﺯ z z
sin - ﺱ s s
şın - ﺵ ş ş
sad - ﺹ s
dad - ﺽ z
tı ﻂ t or d The Arabic letter "tı" is transcribed "d" in some words, e.g. Osm.Tü. ṭokuz = dokuz.
zı - ﻆ z
ayın - ﻉ ʿ ʿ The Arabic hard glottal stop written as a reverse hook, e.g. sâʿat, ʿasker, katʿ
gayın - ﻍ ğ or ġ ġ Ör.: ağır, bağış, but ġayri, peyġamber
fe - ﻑ f f
kaf - ﻕ k or q Written k in words with Turkish back vowels: a - ı - o - u, and in Arabic and Farsi words
kef, gef - ﻙ k, g, or k Written k in words with Turkish front vowels: e - i - ö - ü, but also as g especially in Farsi words, or ḡ as in deḡil
nef - ﯓ (sağır kef) ŋ ŋ or ñ Turkic languages have two n sounds, e.g. onuŋ, baŋa, soŋra; the "hooked ŋ" is obscured in Modern Turkish spelling.
lam - ﻝ l l
mim - ﻡ m m
nun - ﻦ n n
vav - ﻭ v w Ar. waw (vav) may also be transcribed with vowels o - ö - u - ü
he- ﻩ h h Ar. he may be transcribed as the vowels a or e
lam elif - ﻻ or la or or le or la
ye - ﻯ y y May also represent the Arabic letter hemze, e.g. cāʾiz, fāʾide
hemze - ﺀ ʾ ʾ This is the Arabic soft glottal stop transcribed as a forward hook, e.g. şeyʾi, risâleʾ-i sâniye, teʾsis, İsrâʾil